A multivitamin is a preparation that is intended to function as a dietary supplement with vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. Such preparations are available in the form of tablets, capsules, cakes, powders, liquids, or injectable formulas. In healthy people, most scientific evidence shows that multivitamin supplements do not protect against cancer, heart disease, or other diseases, and regular supplements are not necessary. However, certain groups of people can benefit from multivitamin supplements, for example people with poor nutrition or people at high risk for macular degeneration. There is no standardized scientific definition of a multivitamin. In the United States, a multivitamin / mineral supplement is defined as a supplement that contains three or more vitamins and minerals that do not contain herbs, hormones, or drugs. Included in a diet below the level prescribed by the Food and Drug Board, and does not pose a risk of adverse health effects. The components which are used in multivitamin are formulas of various types of multivitamins such as Vitamin C, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B7, Vitamin B9, Vitamin B12, Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Vitamin D2( or D3), Vitamin K, Potassium, Iodine, Selenium, Borate, Zinc, Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Beta-Carotene and / or Iron. Multivitamins are often available in a variety of formulas based on age and sex, or (like prenatal vitamins) based on more specific nutritional needs; Multivitamins for men may contain less iron, while multivitamins for older people may contain extra vitamin D. Some formulas emphasize additional antioxidants. Some nutrients, such as calcium and magnesium, are rarely included in less than 100% of the recommended amount because the pill becomes too large. Most multivitamins come in capsule form; Tablets, powders, liquids, and injectable formulas are also available. In the United States, the FDA requires that any product marketed as a "multivitamin" contain at least three vitamins and minerals; Also, dosages should be below the "tolerable upper limit" and multivitamins may not contain herbs, hormones, or medications.
Multivitamins are useful in day to day life. However the majority of people taking multivitamin will not be beneficial. For certain people, such as elderly, supplementing the diet with additional vitamins and minerals may be useful for the healthy impacts.
People with dietary imbalances can include restricted foods and people who are unable or unwilling to eat nutritious foods. Pregnant women and older adults have different nutritional needs than other adults, and a doctor may prescribe a multivitamin. Generally, medical advice is to avoid multivitamins during pregnancy, especially those containing vitamin A, unless recommended by a healthcare professional. Multivitamins are not a ticket to optimal health. In fact, there is evidence that they improve the health of most people. They can even cause harm to some person in a few cases. If you have a nutritional deficiency, it is best to supplement that particular nutrient. The amount of each type of vitamin in multivitamin formulations generally corresponds to what is believed to have good health effects in large population groups. However, this standard amount does not match the adaptation in some subpopulations, such as children, pregnant women, and people with certain medical conditions and medications. Severe vitamin and mineral deficiencies requires medical treatment and can be very difficult to treat with common over the counter multivitamins
Multivitamins in large doses can cause risk of serious overdose due to toxicity of certain parts, mainly iron. However, unlike iron tablets, which can be fatal to children, high doses of multivitamins are much less toxic. Consumers who experience serious side effects due to low doses have a much lower risk for the supplement. There are also strict limits on retinol content for vitamin A during pregnancy, which is specifically addressed in the prenatal formula. Some benefits of multivitamins are:
- Increased level of energy release
When you don't get vitamins, your body has to work harder to function normally, which can lead to fatigue and other health problems. Taking a multivitamin and having a healthy lifestyle can keep you fit and healthy.
- Better mood
Some studies have shown that daily multivitamins have a positive effect on a person's mood and emotional well-being. Getting the vitamins and minerals you need improves the brain functions responsible for your brain.
- Reduce stress and anxiety
Minerals and Vitamins can also abate stress and anxiety level in your daily life. They convert food into energy, nourish proper functioning of the nervous system, and build stress hormones for your body with the help of Vitamin B.
- Improved short-term memory
A recent study from Australia showed that B vitamins have a significant effect in supporting short-term memory function. In the study, participants who took vitamin B12 supplements performed better on memory tests than those who did not.
- Maintain muscle strength
Free radicals are primarily responsible for muscle-related problems. Taking a daily multivitamin can control these harmful free radicals.
Vitamin deficiency is a chronic condition of vitamin deficiency. The underlying disorder may be an enzyme - such as a genetic defect in the conversion of tryptophan to niacin - or lifestyle choices that increase vitamin requirements, such as smoking or alcohol consumption. Government guidelines for vitamin deficiencies suggest some intake for healthy individuals, including rates for men, children, the elderly and special rates during pregnancy or lactation. Many countries have set up vitamin boosting programs to prevent vitamin deficiencies.
Vitamin C deficiency can occur if you do not get enough vitamin C from the food you eat. Vitamin C deficiency is feasible when something diminish your ability to absorb Vitamin C. For example, smoking impairs your body's ability to absorb vitamin C.
In some serious diseases, such as cancer or severe kidney disease, vitamin C deficiency also increases the risk of anemia by affecting the absorption of vitamin C.
According to the experts Vitamin C is one of the safest and most effective nutrients. Although it may not be the cure for the common cold, the benefits of vitamin C may include immune deficiency, cardiovascular disease, prenatal health problems, eye disease and skin wrinkles. The tolerable upper intake (or maximum amount you can take on a day that is potentially harmless) is 2000 mg per day for adults.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble cyclosteroids that are responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium and phosphate, as well as many other biological effects. Vitamin D3 (also called cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) are most common compounds of the group found in the Humans.
The main natural source of the vitamin is the synthesis of cholesterol in the lower layers of the skin by a chemical reaction that depends on sun exposure (especially UVB radiation). Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be obtained through diet and supplements. Only certain foods, such as fatty fish, naturally contain significant amounts of vitamin D. In the United States and other countries, cow's milk and vegetable milk substitutes are fortified with vitamin D, e.g. there are many breakfast cereals. It is estimated that one billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiency or deficiency. Deficiency of vitamin D is very common in European population. Vitamin D deficiency occurs due to lack of diet rich in vitamin D and insufficient sun exposure. Severe vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets, softens and weakens bones, a rare disease in the developed world. Vitamin D deficiency is seen worldwide in the elderly and is common in children and adults. Deficiency results from bone mineralization and bone loss leading to osteoporosis, rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Low blood calciferol (25-hydroxy-vitamin D) can result from sun exposure. Vitamin D deficiency can reduce the intestinal absorption of dietary calcium by 15%. When there is no deficiency, a person is usually absorbed between 60 and 80%. Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated organic nutrients that include retinol, retinol and several pro vitamin A carotenoids (especially beta-carotene). Vitamin A has many functions: It is important for growth and development, maintaining the immune system and good eyesight. Vitamin A is required in the form of retina in the retina of the eye, which combines with the protein opsin to form rhodopsin, a molecule that absorbs light necessary for both low light (scoping vision) and colored vision. Vitamin A also plays a very different role in the form of retinoic acid (a non-oxidizing form of retinol), which is an important growth hormone-like growth hormone for devices and other cells. In foods of animal origin, the predominant form of vitamin A is an ester, mainly retinol relay, which is converted to retinol (chemical alcohol) in the small intestine. Retinol acts as a reservoir of vitamins and the optically active form of the aldehyde can be converted to and from the retina. Vitamin A deficiency is estimated to affect about one third of children under the age of five worldwide. It is estimated that 670,000 children under the age of five are requested each year. Vitamin A deficiency causes blindness between 250,000 and 500,000 children each year in developing countries, most common in Africa and Southeast Asia. According to UNICEF, vitamin A deficiency is "the leading cause of childhood blindness." It also increases the risk of death from common childhood conditions such as diarrhea. UNICEF considers vitamin A deficiency to be important in reducing infant mortality, a quarter of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.
Vitamin A deficiency can be either a primary or a secondary deficiency. Primary vitamin A deficiency occurs in children and adults who do not consume provitamin A carotenoids from fruits and vegetables or vitamin A supplements from animal and dairy products. Breastfeeding before breastfeeding can also increase the risk of vitamin A deficiency. Secondary vitamin A deficiency is associated with fatal stone production and lipid release and fatal exposure to oxidants such as cigarette smoke and chronic alcohol consumption. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin and depends on mitochondrial solubility to spread to the small intestine, resulting in the misuse of vitamin A by low-fat diets. Zinc deficiency can also affect the absorption, transport and metabolism of vitamin A, because vitamin A is essential for the synthesis of transport proteins and as a cofactor in the conversion of retinol into retinas. In malnourished populations, low doses of vitamin A and zinc increase the severity of vitamin A deficiency and lead to natural signs and symptoms of deficiency. A study in Burkina Faso showed a significant reduction in malaria in young children using combined vitamin A and zinc supplements. Vitamin B is a class of water-soluble vitamins that play an important role in the synthesis of cellular enzymes and red blood cells. Although these vitamins have similar names (B1, B2, B3, etc.), they are chemically different compounds that often coexist in the same food. In general, all eight supplements are called vitamin B complexes. Individual B vitamin supplements are represented by the specific number or name of each vitamin, such as B1 for thiamine, B2 for riboflavin, and B3 for niacin, for example. Some are commonly identified by the name: niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin and folic acid. Each vitamin B is either a cofactor (usually a coenzyme) for important metabolic processes or a precursor is required for its preparation. B vitamins are commonly found in meat, eggs and dairy products. Processed carbohydrates such as sugar and white flour have fewer vitamins than those without processors. For this reason, in many countries (including the United States) the law requires the addition of B vitamins to white flour after treatment with thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and folic acid. This is called "rich flour" on food labels. B vitamins are mainly concentrated in meats such as truffles, tuna and liver. Legumes (lentils or beans), whole grains, potatoes, bananas, chili peppers, nutrients, yeast, brewer’s yeast and molasses are the sources of B vitamins. However, yeast uses beer as a source of B vitamins. Their bioavailability ranges from poor to negative as ethanol absorbs thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), biotin (B7) and folic acid (B9). In addition, each preferential study further emphasizes that proper consumption of beer and other alcoholic beverages leads to a clear deficiency of these B vitamins and to the health risks associated with such deficiencies. Vitamin B12 is not widely available in plant products, making B12 deficiency a legitimate concern for vegetarians. Plant-based food manufacturers sometimes overlook B12 content, leading to confusion as to which sources produce B12. The confusion arises because the standard US Pharmacopoeia (USP) for measuring B12 content does not directly measure B12 content. Instead, it measures the bacterial response to food. Chemical forms of vitamin B12 found in plant sources are active against bacteria, but cannot be used by the human body. The same phenomenon can lead to significant overestimation of B12 content in other types of food. A common way to increase your vitamin B intake is to use dietary supplements. B vitamins are commonly found in energy drinks, many of which are marketed in large quantities.